skarosoul:

endermisha:

bmoburns:

preteenager:

HOW DOES POPCORN EVEN DO THAT THING

HERE I SHOW YOU THE THING

image

this is the most majestic thing i have ever seen in my entire life 

it’s like a ballet

(via lifted-lungs)

“I don’t think people love me. They love versions of me I have spun for them, versions of me they have construed in their minds. The easy versions of me, the easy parts of me to love.”

~ (via psych-facts)

(via callingtopeace)

ucsdhealthsciences:

Scientists Discover “Dimmer Switch” For Mood Disorders

Researchers at University of California, San Diego School of Medicine have identified a control mechanism for an area of the brain that processes sensory and emotive information that humans experience as “disappointment.”

The discovery of what may effectively be a neurochemical antidote for feeling let-down is reported Sept. 18 in the online edition of Science.

“The idea that some people see the world as a glass half empty has a chemical basis in the brain,” said senior author Roberto Malinow, MD, PhD, professor in the Department of Neurosciences and neurobiology section of the Division of Biological Sciences. “What we have found is a process that may dampen the brain’s sensitivity to negative life events.”

Because people struggling with depression are believed to register negative experiences more strongly than others, the study’s findings have implications for understanding not just why some people have a brain chemistry that predisposes them to depression but also how to treat it.

Specifically, in experiments with rodents, UC San Diego researchers discovered that neurons feeding into a small region above the thalamus known as the lateral habenula (LHb) secrete both a common excitatory neurotransmitter, glutamate, and its opposite, the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA.

Excitatory neurotransmitters promote neuronal firing while inhibitory ones suppress it, and although glutamate and GABA are among two of the most common neurotransmitters in the mammalian brain, neurons are usually specialists, producing one but not both kinds of chemical messengers.

Indeed, prior to the study, there were only two other systems in the brain where neurons had been observed to co-release excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters – in a particular connection in the hippocampus and in the brainstem during development of the brain’s auditory map.

“Our study is one of the first to rigorously document that inhibition can co-exist with excitation in a brain pathway,” said lead author Steven Shabel, a postdoctoral researcher with Department of Neurosciences and neurobiology section of the Division of Biological Sciences. “In our case, that pathway is believed to signal disappointment.”

The LHb is a small node-like structure in the epithalamus region of the brain that is critical for processing a variety of inputs from the basal ganglia, hypothalamus and cerebral cortex and transmitting encoded responses (output) to the brainstem, an ancient part of the brain that mammals share with reptiles.

Experiments with primates have shown that activity in the LHb increases markedly when monkeys are expecting but don’t get a sip of fruit juice or other reward, hence the idea that this region is part of a so-called disappointment pathway.

Proper functioning of the LHb, however, is believed to be important in much more than just disappointment and has been implicated in regulating pain responses and a variety of motivational behaviors. It has also been linked to psychosis.

Depression, in particular, has been linked to hyperactivity of the LHb, but until this study, researchers had little empirical evidence as to how this overstimulation is prevented in healthy individuals given the apparent lack of inhibitory neurons in this region of the brain.

"The take-home of this study is that inhibition in this pathway is coming from an unusual co-release of neurotransmitters into the habenula," Shabel said. Researchers do not know why this region of the brain is controlled in this manner, but one hypothesis is that it allows for a more subtle control of signaling than having two neurons directly counter-acting each other.

Researchers were also able to show that neurons of rodents with aspects of human depression produced less GABA, relative to glutamate. When these animals were given an antidepressant to raise their brain’s serotonin levels, their relative GABA levels increased.

"Our study suggests that one of the ways in which serotonin alleviates depression is by rebalancing the brain’s processing of negative life events vis-à-vis the balance of glutamate and GABA in the habenula," Shabel said. "We may now have a precise neurochemical explanation for why antidepressants make some people more resilient to negative experiences."

Pictured: Basal ganglia neurons (green) feed into the brain and release glutamate (red) and GABA (blue) and sometimes a mix of both neurotransmitters (white).

(via neurosciencestuff)

jubi-liana:

koteddo:

beemerthebummer submitted:

omg kota that kitties face was full of nope, it reminded me of another kitty full of nope

asdfgHJKL;’ THIS IS WHAT WE INTENDED TO DO BUT THE EYEBROWS FELL OFF—

THANK YOU BEEMER OMG

“There are two reasons why we don’t trust people. First - we don’t know them. Second - we know them.”

~ Unknown  (via thatkindofwoman)

(Source: bonus, via herhappythoughts)

“You can never cross the ocean unless you have the courage to lose sight of the shore.”

~ Christopher Columbus  (via sad-empty) (via go-on-sleeping) (via a-bstracto)

persiancatworld:

#persiancat on ig by http://ift.tt/1fefBAJ

Me in terms of my education.

(via a-bstracto)

plantcosmos:

detalis from a house that’s been abandoned since 1962

(via dudegetbent)

This is exactly how I want my life to stay like forever.

You are the first thought in my mind every morning, and the mere thought of you brings me comfort and happiness.

blackyrider:

thefingerfuckingfemalefury:

THIS IS NOT A GOOD BOX HUMAN

SAVE ME FROM THE BOX

I TRIED TO SITS BUT IT DIDN’T FITS

(Source: tastefullyoffensive, via guy)

ink-porn:

cancanfannibal:

ohsojose-fine:

nenna4:

vvidget:

The Greatest Tattoo Artists in the World, and where to find them.

Peter Aurisch - Berlin, Germany

Alice Carrier - Portland, Oregon

Chaim Machlev - Berlin, Germany

Kenji Alucky - Hokkaido, Japan

Marcin Aleksander Surowiec - Warsaw, Poland

Ien Levin - Kiev, Ukraine

Amanda Wachob - Brooklyn, N.Y

Madame Chän - Berlin, Germany

David Hale in Athens, Georgia 

Ondrash in Znojmo, Czech Republic

Love the different styles

Tattoos are fucking art i don’t care what anyone else says

wow these are amazing.

So much diversity.

(via princeofclockwork)

parteira:

excuse me i need your leg

(Source: best-of-imgur, via guy)

abandonedography:

Took my dad to see if his first car was still where he left it when its engine seized 40 years ago.

via Deletraz on Reddit

(via princeofclockwork)